Human grooming by Daniel Laberge
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Fold crossing pathology

Those odd spots on your skin
are fold crossings

You've often noticed fold crossings on your skin, but you didn't know what they were.

Fold crossing examples
Crossings   Crossing
Crossing   Crossing
Crossing   Crossing
    © David Benbennick
Crossing   Crossings

Badly identified fold crossings

Most people will say; «This image is not a fold crossing, it's a ...».
Well, that was before grooming made us understand that these phenomenons are simply different outcomes to a single fact; the meeting of two folds in the skin.
Here is a long list of names given to fold crossings;

A fold crossing
is also known as a
Node or nodule
Beauty spot or mark
Black or brown spot
Sun spot
Age spot
Dilated pore
Hair vertex or crown
Heel spur
Skin lesion

You can see an evolution in the gravity of the problems.
Benign conditions develop into serious disorders.

Non-problematic fold crossings

Most fold crossings, however, do not exhibit any of these symptoms.
They are only knots in your skin.

Analogy with roads

A single road is quite rare on this planet.
A road will connect with another at some point, creating a road crossing.
We all know how much more action there is at the crossings than elsewhere on the roads.

Fold crossing


The fold crossing chimney

The corners of the crossing slowly close in and create a void in the center, a skin cavern.
This evolves height wise into a chimney-like structure.
Its inner passage is often constricted and twisted, with plenty of sudden curves.
The opening is often mistaken for a pore.
Some organic wastes, expulsed from the enclosed skin, remain captive inside.

Trapped skin

The center of the fold crossing becomes almost completely encased into its sealed corners.
This structure solidifies, developing into a grotto made of skin.

Fold crossing chimney

At the top of the chimney, continuous refolding pulls more skin down into it.
The entrance gets covered and blocked.
But, most often, there remains an opening.

How the chimney is built

The fold crossing keeps on sinking deeper into your skin.
New coats of epidermis push and compress the older ones down.

Fold crossing

The chimney keeps on elongating

Hundreds of enclosed cells make up the chimney's walls with epidermis coats holding it together
Typically, a few hair follicles and sweat glands now find their exits redirected into the chimney.

Most vital functions are halted

Several areas become so crumpled, flattened or distorted that their vital functions, such as hair growth, sweat and sebum production, are halted.

Some vital functions remain active

On the other hand, a minority will stay active.
But their position has changed.
The bodily wastes they produce, hair, sebum and sweat, are now expulsed inside the fold crossing.
They accumulate in this skin pouch and have a hard time finding their way out.

Open and closed chimneys

Sometimes, the evacuation of the wastes will keep the top of the chimney open.
But the wound healing process at the skin’s surface has a tendency to pave the opening with epidermis.

Open and closed chimneys

The chimney becomes closed.

What's inside the chimney?

The content depends on the crossing's position on your body.
Generally, it is a mix of dead epidermis cells and sebum.
You can expect the sebum content to be greater on your face, but it is spectacular on your scalp.
Sebum makes this cement stronger.
The chimney will also contain sweat, hair, cellular wastes and possibly some intruders.
These uninvited guests include whatever there was on the skin just prior to it being folded: food, cosmetics, dirt, ...

Hair out of the chimney

Typically, one hair will stick out of it, though it may be quite small and colorless.

Hair out of crossing

Hair coming out of a fold crossing

In very folded areas, like your scalp, several hairs may come out of the same chimney.

Open chimneys evacuate their wastes

Even when it is open, evacuating the chimney is difficult and awkward.
Since air can penetrate it, its content has a tendency to dry in place.

Trapped wastes evacuate

Wastes can leave an open chimney

Further waste production pushes some out gradually.


Sometimes, in areas where sebum glands abound, the very top of the chimney's content will dehydrate, forming a plug.


The top dries out and blocks the exit

New wastes accumulate and compress behind it.
You know this phenomenon as a blackhead.

Closed chimneys entrap their wastes

Specific epidermis formation sometimes paves the top of the crossing with fresh coats of cells.
A capped chimney imprisons its contents.
Everything stays trapped in.

Closed crossing

Epidermis formed at the surface
closes the chimney

These encased deposits don't dry and may remain captive for life.


If new sebum arrival is sufficient, the pressure increases inside the chimney.


Sebum pressure curves the skin

It forces a swelling and a bubbling of the skin at the top of the chimney.
You know this phenomenon as a pimple.


Your face is about six times more folded than your body is.
There are proportionally more sebum glands there, making their presence inside the crossings probable.
Your body's sudden size increase at adolescence tightens the grid of folds and crossings deeper into the skin.
This augmentation of your skin's tension has a strangling effect on the crossings.
It is as if they were pinched.

Trapped in wastes may infect the skin

When its exit is closed, the pressure inside the crossing augments as more wastes arrive.
This stress may push the filling, not finding an exit, to attack its skin sheath.
The flesh is pierced.

Pierced crossing

The skin is perforated

Some blood invades the chimney.
Your body is now fighting this invader.
Pus is formed.

A mixture of sebum, pus and blood

This infection usually produces more swelling and a need to empty the content unnaturally.
Other times, the exit may be so far away or unreachable that everything is kept in.
This link with the immune system may lead to disease.

The cancer connection

My cancer theory is based on the principle that they are caused by alien substances trapped in the body.
All kinds of compounds stay stuck inside fold crossings.
Many may be harmful, but it is believed that sunburned skin cells are carcinogenic.
These cells, charred by the overexposures of your youth, are now deeply inlayed.
They form the deepest parts of your folds and crossings.
Your system thinks they're foreign and does all it can to reject them, but, after years of combat, it loses the battle.
The infection then spreads inward.
Skin, breast, prostate, anal, mouth, ... cancers would all be fold crossing cancers.

Backing evidence

The following observations have guided my thinking;
•The link between acne scars or moles and skin cancer is clearly documented and accepted by the scientific community.
•The lumps or nodules that triggered my grooming adventure are the kind described in breast cancer early detection tests and in prostate cancer rectal touch examinations.
•I am now experienced at seeing what fold crossings look like on my body and that of others. I have examined skin cancer photographs. Not only is the appearance of epithelioma or a melanoma similar to a crossing, their position on the body corresponds to major intersections on the grid of folds.
Places where most people have a problem.


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